Let not be the initial node and have a single predecessor, . The transformation is the replacement of , and by a single node . The predecessors of become the predecessors of . The successors of or become the successors of . There is an arc if and only if there was formerly an edge or .
- Евстигнеев В.А., Касьянов В.Н. Словарь по графам в информатике. — Новосибирск: Сибирское Научное Издательство, 2009.